Femtocell, Pecocell, Cell phone booster are several methods to improve signal, but what is the best ?

A lot of schemes are proposed to exploit the transmit diversity. Distributed antenna systems (DAS) constitute one of the most attractive schemes to efficiently achieve the stringent quality of service demands of next generation wireless networks. A particular project investigates MISO assisted different transmission techniques used in DAS and the performance of downlink multi-cell DAS in terms of capacity improvement using SINR for different transmission scheme. A system level simulation tool is used to analyze the performance. Here, the aim of this research is to assess the applicability of a Repeater connected to a Distributed Antenna System (DAS) for improving indoor capacity in UMTS radio network (2100 MHz).
A guarantee of sufficient coverage and capacity for In-building areas constitutes a considerable issue in topology planning, because in both links, indoor users produce high interference to the outdoor network due to significant indoor propagation losses. Presented configuration effectively exploits effectively a Repeater system that amplifies the signal from the outdoor network and delivers it for indoor locations through distributed antenna system. Implementation of the analyzed Repeater system is straightforward as it does not require usage of separate carrier. Moreover, any separate scrambling codes do not have to be dedicated either. Conducted measurement campaigns reveal improvement of radio conditions due to Repeater implementation that results in 35% gain of downlink capacity for indoor locations.
Distributed-antenna-install
A distributed antenna system, or DAS, is a network of spatially separated antenna nodes connected to a common source via a transport medium that provides wireless service within a geographic area or structure. DAS antenna elevations are generally at or below the clutter level and node installations are compact. A distributed antenna system may be deployed indoors (an iDAS) or outdoors (an oDAS).
A distributed antenna system can be implemented using passive splitters and feeders, or active-repeater amplifiers can be included to overcome the feeder losses. In systems where equalization is applied, it may be desirable to introduce delays between the antenna elements. This artificially increases delay spread in areas of overlapped coverage, permitting quality improvements via time diversity.
Using a distributed antenna system to create an area of wireless coverage, it is possible to use this technique to propagate indoor WiFi for commercial uses. It is estimated that only about 5% of commercial WiFi use a distributed antenna system.
Distributed Antenna Systems may be placed inside buildings for increasing wireless signals within buildings. Often they are placed within large structures such as stadiums or corporate headquarters.
Systems are also placed in the utility right of way on top of utility poles, street light poles and traffic signal poles.
In addition to security applications and those that help reduce passenger-induced delays, the TINA network can also be employed to manage a wide range of fixed and mobile equipment, Sabesan says, such as wireless security cameras, mobile data terminals, biometric reading terminals, RFID-based boarding cards and information and entertainment displays.
In designing the system, the research team chose to utilize passive tags since they are cheap and widely available. There is much interest in designing a system that can identify and locate passive RFID tags, however—though this involves significant technical changes if the antenna range is to be large enough for suitable applications. The researchers anticipate that such a system would need to track approximately one million moving tags per day, and the tags must be compact, cheap and reusable. To meet this challenge, the team needed to develop a new form of wireless signal distribution, by which multiple services (including communications and public safety radio, as well as passive RFID) could be supported.
In addition to supporting RFID on the same infrastructure as other wireless services, theRFID-enabled DAS is anticipated to have 100 percent coverage, comparable to a wireless local area network (WLAN), thus allowing the same wideband antennas to be used for all wireless services. This is beyond the capability of any current passive RFID system, the researchers note, but with direct support from Boeing, research has been carried out to overcome this challenge. In short, Sabesan says, the group wanted to use passive tags that would provide sufficient read ranges and could be read in bulk while providing enhanced location accuracy.

How safe are Cell Phone Towers??


About cell phone towers

The 3 expert agencies that usually classify cancer-causing exposures (carcinogens) – the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – have not classified cell phone towers specifically as to their cancer-causing potential.
The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has said the following about cell phone towers near homes or schools:
“Radio frequency emissions from antennas used for cellular and PCS [personal communications service] transmissions result in typically thousands of times exposure levels on the ground below safety limits. These safety limits were adopted by the FCC based on the recommendations of expert organizations and endorsed by agencies of the Federal Government responsible for health and safety. Thus fore, there is no reason to believe that such towers could constitute a potential health hazard to nearby residents or students.”
About RF radiation
Some of the agencies that classify cancer-causing exposures have, however, made statements about radio frequency radiation.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RF fields as “possibly carcinogenic to humans,” based on limited evidence of a possible increase in risk for brain tumours among cell phone users, and inadequate evidence for other types of cancer. (For more information on the IARC classification system, see Known and Probable Human Carcinogens.) IARC also noted that exposure to the brain from RF fields from cell phone base stations (mounted on roofs or towers) is less than 1/100th the exposure to the brain from mobile devices such as cell phones.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states:
“At very high levels, RF energy is dangerous. It can heat the body’s tissues rapidly. However, such high levels are found only near certain equipment, such as powerful long-distance transmitters. Cellphones and wireless networks produce RF, but not at levels that cause significant heating. In addition, RF energy decreases quickly over distance. At ground level, exposure to RF from sources like cellphone towers is usually very low.
Some people are concerned about potential health effects, especially on the developing brains and bodies of children. Few studies say that heavy long-term use of cellphones could have health effects. But few others don’t find any health effects from cellphone use. Long-term studies on animals exposed to the RF found in wireless networks (Wi-Fi) have, so far, found no health effects. Scientists continue to study the effects of long-term exposure to low levels of RF.”
Cell phone towers are not known to cause any health effects. But in case of any query or anybody concerned about possible exposure from a cell phone tower near home or office, one can ask a government agency or private firm to measure the RF field strength near the tower (where a person could be exposed) to ensure that it is within the acceptable range.
Basically, there is no test to measure whether you have been exposed to RF radiation from cellular phone towers. But as noted above, most researchers and regulatory authorities do not believe that cell phone towers pose health risks under ordinary conditions.